Effect of coconut shell extract on the growth performance and some haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicken





coconut shell, phytochemicals, growth, haematology, serum, broilers


This experiment was carried out at Sumitra Research Institute, Gujarat, India to evaluate the effect of coconut shell extract on the growth performance and some haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicken. 240 – 1 day old Hubbard broiler chicks of mixed sex were randomly distributed to six treatments with six replicates containing ten birds each in a completely randomized design. Birds in treatment 1(T1) was fed standard diet with no coconut shell extract; T2: standard diet with 1.0 mL coconut shell extract per liter of water; T3: standard diet with 2.0 mL coconut shell extract per liter of water and T4: standard diet with 3.0 mL coconut shell extract per liter of water. Standard diet was formulated according to the nutritional needs of broilers. The study lasted for fifty-six day and birds were offered fresh clean water and feed ad libitum. Phenols (410.3 mg/g-1), tannins (98.21 mg/g-1), alkaloids (100.6 mg/g-1), flavonoids (309.5 mg/g-1), saponins (71.4 mg/g-1) and steroids (28.7 mg/g-1) were identified coconut shell extract. Overall weight gains of birds fed T3 (2506.3 g) and T4 (2527.6 g) had a numerical and a remarkable significant improvement if feed conversion ratio from 1.92 to 1.59 compared to T2 (2210.0 g) and T1 (1996.1 g). Mortality was only recorded among birds in T1 (2.00 %) (p < 0.05). Pack cell volume, red blood cell, white blood cell, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations were influenced (p < 0.05) by the treatments. However, values were within the normal range for healthy birds. Total protein, albumin and globulin values were higher in T2, T3 and T4 except for alanine phosphatase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase values which were not significantly (p > 0.05) different among the treatment. Total cholesterol was higher (p < 0.05) in T1 relative to the other treatments. It was concluded that coconut shell extract can be fed to broilers up to 3.0 mL without causing any negative effect on the health status of animals.


Abd-El-Hack, M. E., & Alagawany, M. (2015). Performance, egg quality, blood profile, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities in laying hens fed diets with thyme powder. Journal of Animal and Feed Science, 24(2), 127-133. https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/doi/full/10.5555/20153232467 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22358/jafs/65638/2015

Adewale, A. O., Alagbe, J. O., Adeoye, Adekemi. G. (2021). Dietary supplementation of Rauvolfia vomitoria root extract as a phytogenic feed additive in growing rabbit diets: Haematology and serum biochemical indices. International Journal of Current Researches in Sciences, Social Sciences and Languages, 1(3), 15-26. https://www.ijcrsssl.com/papers/v1/i3/IJCRSSSLV1I30003.pdf

Akinpelu, D. A, Alayande, K. A., Aiyegoro, O. A., Akinpelu, O. F., & Okoh, A. I. (2015). Probable mechanisms of biocidal action of Cocos nucifera Husk extract and fractions on bacteria isolates. BMC Complement Alternative Medicine, 15, 116. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0634-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0634-3

Alagbe J. O., Shittu, M. D., & Ajagbe, A. D. (2020). Albizia lebbeck stem bark aqueous extract as alternative to antibiotic feed additives in broiler chicks’ diets: performance and nutrient retention. International Journal of Zoology and Animal Biology, 2(1). https://www.al-kindipublisher.com/index.php/ijbpcs/article/view/67

Alagbe, J. O., Ramalan, S. M., Shittu, M. D., & Olagoke, O. C. (2022). Effect of Trichilia monadelpha stem bark extract on the fatty acid composition of rabbit’s thigh meat. Journal of Environmental Issues and Climate Change, 1(1), 63-71. https://doi.org/10.59110/jeicc.v1i1.76 DOI: https://doi.org/10.59110/jeicc.v1i1.76

Alagbe, J. O., Shittu, M. D., & Tanimomo, B. K. (2022). Influence of Anogeissusleio carpus stem bark on the fatty acid composition in meat of broiler chickens. European Journal of Life Safety and Stability, 14(22), 13-22. http://www.ejlss.indexedresearch.org/index.php/ejlss/article/view/447

Alagbe, O. J. (2023). Impact of dietary supplementation of Carica papaya essential oil on the blood chemistry of broiler chickens. Food Science & Applied Microbiology Reports, 2(2), 58-67. https://doi.org/10.61363/meqmwj94

Alagbe, J. O. (2023). Investigating the effects of dietary supplementation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and caecal fermentation of weaned rabbits. Research in Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, 7(3), 139-148. http://jomardpublishing.com/UploadFiles/Files/journals/RV/V7N3/Alagbe.pdf

Alagbe, J. O. (2023). Investigating the effects of dietary supplementation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil on haemato-biochemical indices, immune response and oxidative stress of weaned rabbits. Matrix Science Pharma, 7(3), 103-108. DOI: 10.4103/mtsp.mtsp_17_23 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/mtsp.mtsp_17_23

Al-Adhroey, A. H., Nor, Z. M., Al-Mekhlafi, H. M., Amran, A. A., & Mahmud, R. (2011). Evaluation of the use of Cocos nucifera as antimalarial remedy in Malaysian folk medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 134(3), 988-991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.026 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.026

Alhajj, M. S., Alhobaishi, M., Gel, El Nabi, A. R., & Al-Mufarrej, S. I (2015). Immune responsiveness and performance of broiler chickens fed diet supplemented with high levels of Chinese star anise fruit (Illicium verum Hook. f). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 14, 36-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/javaa.2015.36.42

Al-Kassie, A. M., Al-Nasrawi, A. M., & Ajeena, S. J. (2011). Use of black pepper as feed additive in broiler diet. Research Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 1, 169-173. https://sid.ir/paper/674992/en

American Metabolic Testing Laboratories, Inc. Chemistry Profile. (2001). Available in: www.caprofile.net/t3.html Access in 05 May, 2024.

Ayodele, S. O., Oloruntola, O. D., & Agbede, J. O. (2016). Effect of diet containing Alchornea cordifolia leaf meal on performance and digestibility of Weaner rabbits. World Rabbit Science, 24(3), 201-206. https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2016.3933 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4995/wrs.2016.3933

Begum, M., Hosain, M. M., & Kim, I. H. (2014). Effect of plant extracts YGF251 on the growth performance, meat quality, relative organ weight, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in broiler chickens: possible role of insulin growth factor. Veterinary Medicina, 59, 415-423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/7681-VETMED

Campbell, T. W. (2012). Clinical chemistry of birds. In: Thrall, M. A., Weiser, g., Allison, R. W., & Campbell, T. W. (2nd Eds). Veterinary hematology and clinical chemistry, 582–598 p. Wiley–Blackwell, A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication. Iowa, USA.

Cho, J. H., Kim, H. J., Kim, I. H. (2014). Effect of phytogenic feed additive on growth performance digestibility, blood metabolites, intestinal microbiota, meat colour abd relative weight after oral challenge with Clostridium perfrigens in broilers. Livestock Science, 160, 82-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.11.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.11.006

Daniel, N. A., Friday, U., & Alagbe, O. J. (2023). Investigating the effects of pawpaw (Carica papaya) essential oil dietary supplementation on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. Research in Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, 7(3), 164-174.

DebMandal, M., & Mandal, S. (2011). Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): In health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 4(3), 241-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60078-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60078-3

Dhanya, G., Vivek, P., & Ashish, G. R. (2018). Phytochemical analysis of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera Linn.) using gas chromatogrphy - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(6), 384-386.

Emami, K. N., Samie, A., Rahmani, H. R., & Ruiz, C. A. (2012). The effect of peppermint essential oil and fructooligosacchrides as alternative Virginiamycin on the growth performance, digestibility and gut morphology of male broilers. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 175(1-2), 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.04.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.04.001

Ghazaghi, M. M., Mehri, M., & Kasmani, F. B. (2014). Effect of dietary Mentha spicata on performance blood metabolites, meat quality in growing Japanese quails. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 194, 89-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.04.014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.04.014

Hashemi, S. R., Zulfili, I., Davoodi, H., Hairbejo, M., & Loh, T. C. (2014). Intestinal histo-morphology changes and serum biochemistry responses of broiler chickens fed herbal plants (Euphorbia hirta) and mix of acidifier. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 4, 95-103.

Hernandez, F., Madrid, J., Gracia, V., Orengo, J., & Megias, M. D. (2004). Influence of two plant extracts on broiler performance, digestibility and digestive organ size. Poultry Science, 83(2), 169-174. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.2.169 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.2.169

Herrero-Encinas, J. A., Huerta, M., Blanch, J. J., Pastor, S., & Morais, D. (2023). Impact of dietary supplementation of spice extracts on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and antioxidant responses in broiler chickens. Animals, 13(2), 250. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13020250 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13020250

Huie, C. W. (2002). A review of modern sample-preparation techniques for the extraction and analysis of medicinal plants. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 373(1-2), 23-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-002-1265-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-002-1265-3

Islam, S. N., Begum, P., Ahsan, T., Huque, S., & Ahsan, M. (2004). Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic properties of Nigella sativa. Phytotherapy Research, 18(5), 395-398. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1449 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1449

Jeong, J-S., & Kim, I-H. (2015). Effect of fermented medicinal plants (Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa, Scutellaria baicalensis) as alternative performance enhancers in broilers. Journal of Poultry Science, 52(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0140061 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.0140061

Lima, E. B. C., Sousa, C. N. S., Meneses, L. N., Ximenes, N. C., Santos Júnior, M. A., Vasconcelos, G. S., Lima, N. B. C., Patrocínio., M. C. A., Maceda, D., & Vasconcelos, S. M. M. (2015). Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 48(11), 953-964. https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X20154773 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431x20154773

Martin, M. P., Wineland, M., & Barnes, H. J. (2010). Selected blood chemistry and gas reference ranges for broiler breeders using the i-STAT® Handheld clinical analyzer. Avian Diseases, 54(3), 1016-1020. https://doi.org/10.1637/9223-122209-Reg.1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1637/9223-122209-Reg.1

Meluzzi, A., Primiceri, G., Giordani, R., & Guglielmo, F. (1992). Determination of blood constituents reference values in broilers. Poultry Science, 71(2), 337-345. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0710337 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0710337

Muritala, D. S., Alagbe, J. O., Ojebiyi, O. O., Ojediran, T. K., & Rafiu, T. A. (2022). Growth performance and haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens given varied concentrations of Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract in place of conventional antibiotics. Animal Science and Genetics, 18(2), 57-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0015.9185

Musa, B., Alagbe, J. O., Adegbite, M. B., & Omokore, E. A. (2020). Growth performance, caeca microbial population and immune response of broiler chicks fed aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca and Alchornea cordifolia stem bark mixture. United International Journal for Research & Technology, 1(11), 13-21. https://uijrt.com/articles/v1/i11/UIJRTV1I110002.pdf

Nanbol, D. L., Duru, B. N., Nanbol, H. D., Abiliu, C. A., Anueyegu, D. M., Kumbish, P. R., & Solomon, M. (2016). Establishment of reference values for some biochemical and haematological parameters for broilers and layers in plateau state Nigeria. Vom Journal Veterinary Science, 11, 30-35. https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/doi/full/10.5555/20183113308

Nangsuay, A., Meijerhof, R., van den Anker, I., Heetkamp, M. J. W., Kemp, B., & van den Brand, H. (2017). Effects of breeder age, strain, and eggshell temperature on nutrient metabolism of broiler embryos. Poultry Science, 96(6), 1891-1900. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew417 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew417

NRC. (1994). National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, eighth ed. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.

Ojelere, O. O. (2018). Phytochemicals, proximate, mineral element composition and antimicrobial activity of some selected medicinal plant seeds. A dissertation submitted to the department of chemistry, faculty of sciences, university of ibadan, ibadan, nigeria in partial fulfilment of the requirements for award of the degree of Master of Science (M.Sc) in industrial chemistry.

Oloruntola, O. D., Ayodele, S., Adeyeye, S. A., Oloruntola, A. D., Osowe, C. O., & Fasuhami, O. S. (2022). Broiler chickens’ growth, haematological indices and gut microbiota, carcass and meat analysis in response of dietary supplementation with Anacardium occidentale leaf powder and a mix of probiotic, prebiotic and acidifier. Poultry Studies, 19(2), 53-60. https://doi.org/10.34233/jpr.1205727 DOI: https://doi.org/10.34233/jpr.1205727

Ouyang, K., Xu, M., Jiang, Y., & Wang, W. (2016). Effect of Alfafia flavonoids on broiler performance, meat quality and gene expression. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 96(3), 332-341. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2015-0132 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2015-0132

Peter, K. (2021). Antibiotic resistance in pig production. International Pig Magazine, 6(1), 1-2.

Ross, J. G., Christie, G., Halliday, W. G., & Jones, R. M. (1976). Determination of haematology and blood chemistry values in healthy six-week old broiler hybrids. Avian Pathology, 5(4), 273-281. https://doi.org/10.1080/03079457608418196 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03079457608418196

Saif, Y., Fadly, A., Glisson, J., McDougald, L., Nolan, L., & Swayne, D. (2008a). Dyschondroplasia. In: Diseases of Poultry, 12Th Ed., 1154 p.

Shittu, M. D., & Alagbe, J. O. (2020). Phyto-nutritional profiles of broom weed (Sida acuta) leaf extract. Annals of Clinical Toxicology, 3(2), 1032. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4389/c3e04854f79f4a617939de0447197b556040.pdf

Shittu, M. D., Alagbe, J. O., Adejumo, D. O., Ademola, S. G., Abiola, A. O., Samson, B. O., & Ushie, F. T. (2021). Productive performance, caeca microbial population and immune-modulatory activity of broiler chicks fed different levels Sida acuta leaf extract in replacement of antibiotics. Journal of Multidimensional Research & Review, 2(4), 34-42. https://jmrr.org/V2I4/V2I4P05.pdf

Singla, R. K., Jaiswal, N., Bhat, G. V., & Jagani, H. (2011). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae) endocarp extracts. Indonesian Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 1(4), 354-361. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35652/IGJPS.2011.34

Silva, R. R., Oliveira e Silva, D., Fontes, H. R., Alviano, C. S., Fernandes, P. D., & Alviano, D. S. (2013). Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Cocos nucifera var. typica. BMC Complement Alternative Medicine, 13, 107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-107

Singh, S., Alagbe, O. J., Liu, X., Sharma, R., & Kumar, A. (2022). Comparative analysis of ethanolic Juniperus thurifera leaf, stem bark and root extract using gas chromatography and mass spectroemetry. International Journal of Agriculture and Animal Production, 2(6), 18-27. https://doi.org/10.55529/ijaap.26.18.27 DOI: https://doi.org/10.55529/ijaap.26.18.27

Sreekala, V., & Rema, D. R. (2016). An experimental evaluation of the anti-hyperglycemic & anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ripe dried coconut shell (Cocos nucifera Linn) in Wister albino rats with high fructose induced metabolic syndrome (MD Dissertation). Trisshur: Kerala University of Health Sciences, India.

Talebi, A., Asri-Rezaei, S., Rozeh-Chai, R., & Sahraei, R. (2005). Comparative studies on haematological values of broiler strains (Ross, Cobb, Arbor-acres and Arian). Intertnational Journal of Poultry Science, 4(8), 573-579. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2005.573.579

Verma, V., Bhardwaj, A., Rathi, S., & Raja, R. B. (2012). Potential antimicrobial agent from Cocos nucifera mesocarp extract. International Research Journal for Biological Science, 1(2), 48-54. https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/doi/full/10.5555/20133055649

Wakenell, P. S. (2010). Hematology of chickens and turkeys. In: Weiss, D. J., Wardrop, K. J. (6th Eds.) Schalem’s veterinary hematology, 958-967 p. Wiley-Blackwell, London.

Yonatan, K. Y. (2018). growth and health promoting effects of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa in broiler chicken. PhD Dissertation Submitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture Department of Animal Production Studies, Addis Ababa University Ethiopia.




How to Cite

Alagbe, J. O. (2024). Effect of coconut shell extract on the growth performance and some haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicken. Brazilian Journal of Science, 3(6), 82–95. https://doi.org/10.14295/bjs.v3i6.590



Agrarian and Biological Sciences