Measuring the stress of autistic people with the help of a smartwatch, Internet of Things Technology




internet of things, Autism, ASD, stress, sensors, heart rate sensor, smartwatch, ICTs, new technologies


This paper presents the outcomes of a research study that aimed to evaluate the anxiety levels of 10 individuals with autism using Internet of Things (IoT) technology, specifically a wireless smart watch. The incorporation of technology into daily life underscores the significance of recognizing its advantages in enhancing the well-being of individuals. The research study was carried out subsequent to an extensive review of the available literature, which explored various approaches to detecting stress utilizing sensors embedded in smart devices through IoT technology. The research was conducted on 10 adults with autism who were instructed to wear the smart watch, which provided measurements of their anxiety levels both in a calm state of mind and when exposed to loud music. The measurements were obtained during periods when the autistic individuals were relaxed, as well as when they were exposed to high volumes of music. The findings are presented in statistical charts after meticulous data analysis and are noteworthy as they validate previous studies on measuring and identifying anxiety in individuals with autism, as well as the disparities found in comparison to neurotypical individuals.


Bamicha, V., & Drigas, A. (2022) The Evolutionary Course of Theory of Mind - Factors that facilitate or inhibit its operation & the role of ICTs. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 30, 138-158. DOI:

Bravou, V., & Drigas, A. (2019) A contemporary view on online and web tools for students with sensory & learning disabilities. iJOE, 15(12), 97. DOI:

Carissoli, C., Villani, D., & Riva, G. (2015). Does a meditation protocol supported by a mobile application help people reduce stress? Suggestions from a controlled pragmatic trial. Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking, 18(1), 46-53. DOI:

Chaidi, E., Kefalis, C., Papagerasimou, Y., & Drigas, A. (2021) Educational robotics in Primary Education. A case in Greece. Research, Society and Development, 10(9), e17110916371-e17110916371. DOI:

Chaidi, I., & Drigas, A. (2022) Digital games & special education. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 34, 214-236. DOI:

Chaidi, I., & Drigas, A. (2020). Parents' Involvement in the Education of their Children with Autism: Related Research and its Results. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 15(14), 194-203. DOI:

Cohen, S., Gianaros, P. J., & Manuck, S. B. (2016). A Stage Model of Stress and Disease. Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, 11(4), 456-463. DOI:

Danesh, A. A., Howery, S., Aazh, H., Kaf, W., & Eshraghi, A. A. (2021). Hyperacusis in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Audiology research, 11(4), 547-556. DOI:

Demertzi, E., Voukelatos, N., Papagerasimou, Y., & Drigas A. (2018) Online learning facilities to support coding and robotics courses for youth. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP), 8(3), 69-80. DOI:

Drigas, A., & Papoutsi, C. (2015). ICTs for Assessment and Intervention on Cultivation of Empathy. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 10(5), 10-15. DOI:

Drigas A, Dede, D. E., & Dedes, S. (2020). Mobile and other applications for mental imagery to improve learning disabilities and mental health. International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), 17(4), 18-23.

Drigas, A. S., Koukianakis, L, & Papagerasimou, Y. (2006) “An elearning environment for nontraditional students with sight disabilities.” In: Frontiers in Education Conference, 36th Annual. IEEE, 23-27. DOI:

Drigas, A., & Petrova, A. (2014). ICTs in speech and language therapy. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP), 4(1), 49-54. DOI:

Drigas, A., Mitsea, E., & Skianis, C. (2021). The Role of Clinical Hypnosis & VR in Special Education. International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering Science & IT (IJES), 9(4), 4-18. DOI:

Drigas, A,, Mitseam E., & Skianis, C. (2022). Virtual Reality and Metacognition Training Techniques for Learning Disabilities. Sustainability, 14(16), 10170. DOI:

Drigas, A., & Sideraki, A. (2021). Emotional Intelligence in Autism. Technium Socical Sciences Journal, 26, 80. DOI:

Drigas, A., Papoutsi, C. (2021). Nine layer pyramid model questionnaire for emotional intelligence. International Journal of Online & Biomedical Engineering, 17(7). DOI:

Drigas, A., Papoutsi C., & Skianis, C. (2021) Metacognitive and metaemotional training strategies through the nine-layer pyramid model of emotional intelligence. International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT (iJES), (9)4, 58-76. DOI:

Drigas, A., Karyotaki, M., & Skianis, C. (2017). Success: A 9 layered-based model of giftedness. International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT, 5(4), 4-18, DOI:

Drigas, A., Mitsea, E., & Skianis, C. (2022). Intermittent oxygen fasting and digital technologies: from antistress and hormones regulation to wellbeing, bliss and higher mental states. BioChemMed, 3(2), 55-73. DOI:

Fotoglou, A., Moraiti, I., Dona, K., Katsimperi, A., Tsionakas, K., Karabatzaki, Z., & Drigas, A. (2022). IoT Applications help people with Autism. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 31(1), 115-130. DOI:

Karyotaki, M., Bakola, L., Drigas, A., & Skianis, C. (2022). Women’s leadership via digital technology and entrepreneurship in business and society. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 28(1), 246-252. DOI:

Lytra, N., & Drigas, A. (2021). STEAM education-metacognition–Specific Learning Disabilities. Scientific Electronic Archives, 14(10). DOI:

Mitra, A. (2008). Diabetes and Stress: A review. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 2, 131-135. DOI:

Mitsea, E., Drigas, A., & Skianis, C. (2022). ICTs and speed learning in special education: High-consciousness training strategies for high-capacity learners through metacognition lens. Technium Social Sciences Journnal, 27, 230. DOI:

Moraiti, I., Fotoglou, A., Dona, K. ., Katsimperi, A., Tsionakas, K., & Drigas, A. (2022). IoT in special education. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 30(1), 55-63. DOI:

Ntaountaki P., Lorentzou, G., Lykothanasi, A., Anagnostopoulou, P., Alexandropoulou, V., & Drigas, A. (2019). Robotics in Autism intervention. International Journal of Recent Contributions Engineering Science & IT, 7 (4), 4-17. DOI:

Oh, Y. M., Kim, Y. S., Yoo, S. H., Kim, S. K., & Kim, D. S. (2004). Association between stress and asthma symptoms: a population-based study. Respirology (Carlton, Vic.), 9(3), 363-368. DOI:

Papoutsi, C., Drigas, A. S., & Skianis, C. (2018). Mobile Applications to Improve Emotional Intelligence in Autism – A Review. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 12(6), 47-61. DOI:

Piccirillo, G., Elvira, S., Bucca, C., Viola, E., Cacciafesta, M., & Marigliano, V. (1997). Abnormal passive head-up tilt test in subjects with symptoms of anxiety power spectral analysis study of heart rate and blood pressure. International journal of cardiology, 60(2), 121-131. DOI:

Pitskel, N. B., Bolling, D. Z., Kaiser, M. D., Pelphrey, K. A., & Crowley, M. J. (2014). Neural systems for cognitive reappraisal in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Developmental cognitive neuroscience, 10, 117-128. DOI:

Queyam, A. B., & Singh, M. (2013). A novel method of stress detection using physiological measurements of automobile drivers. Dissertation, Master of Engineering in Electronic instrumentation and Control Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab, India.

Salai, M., Vassányi, I., & Kósa, I. (2016). Stress detection using low cost heart rate sensors. Journal of healthcare engineering, 2016, 5136705. DOI:

Slavich, G. M., Taylor, S., & Picard, R. W. (2019). Stress measurement using speech: Recent advancements, validation issues, and ethical and privacy considerations. Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 22(4), 408-413. DOI:

Schubert, C., Lambertz, M., Nelesen, R. A., Bardwell, W., Choi, J. B., & Dimsdale, J. E. (2009). Effects of stress on heart rate complexity-a comparison between short-term and chronic stress. Biological Psychology, 80(3), 325-332. DOI:

Steptoe, A., & Kivimäki, M. (2013). Stress and cardiovascular disease: an update on current knowledge. Annual Review of Public Health, 34, 337-354. DOI:

Galitskaya, V., & Drigas, A. (2021). The importance of working memory in children with Dyscalculia and Ageometria. Scientific Electronic Archives, 14(10). https://doi. org/10.36560/141020211449 DOI:

Wijsman, J., Grundlehner, B., Liu, H., Hermens, H., & Penders, J. (2011). Towards mental stress detection using wearable physiological sensors. In: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference, 1798-1801. DOI:

Xanthopoulou M, Kokalia G, & Drigas A. (2019). Applications for children with autism in preschool and primary education. International Journal of Recent Contributions Engineering Science IT (IJES), 7(2), 4-16 DOI:

Yoon, S., & Kim, Y. K. (2020). The role of the oxytocin system in anxiety disorders. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1191, 103-120. DOI:




How to Cite

Moraiti, I., & Drigas, A. (2024). Measuring the stress of autistic people with the help of a smartwatch, Internet of Things Technology. Brazilian Journal of Science, 3(2), 45–56.